6. FAQ

6.1. Asking questions in GitHub

Pyarmor provides rich options for different cases, the default option only works for common case. When something is wrong, it may be not bug, but need the right options. Users need spend time learning Pyarmor by documentation or pyarmor man, and find the right options for their project. Generally pyarmor team won’t learn user’s project and tell user which options should be used.

Pyarmor is well document, you needn’t read all of them at first, but it’s necessary to read Getting Started which includes essentials concepts. If you spend 10 minutes reading full of it, it may save your several hours to solve the wrong usage problems.

If using pyarmor-7 or Pyarmor < 8.0, please check Pyarmor 7.x Doc

Before ask question, please try the following solutions in order to avoid duplicated issues:

Please report bug in issues and ask questions in discussions

When report bug in issues, please copy the whole command line pyarmor gen and first 4 lines in the console, do not mask version and platform information, and do not paste snapshot image:

$ pyarmor gen -O dist --assert-call foo.py
INFO     Python 3.10.0
INFO     Pyarmor 8.1.1 (trial), 000000, non-profits
INFO     Platform darwin.x86_64

A good report should have

  • A clear title

  • Reproduced steps

  • Actual results

  • Expected results


If a bug report misses necessary information and not clear, it may be marked as invalid and closed immediately.

6.2. Hot Questions

Is there any tool could broken Pyarmor?

Pyarmor team doesn’t care about these kind of tools, but focus on researching CPython source to design obfuscation algorithm. Through several irreversible obfuscation methods, Pyarmor makes sure the obfuscated scripts can’t be restored by any way.

Refer to Highest security and performance, use the highest security options available for you to obfuscate this script

import sys

def fib(n):
    a, b = 0, 1
    while a < n:
        print(a, end=' ')
        a, b = b, a+b

print('python version:', sys.version_info[:2])
print('this is fib(10)', fib(10))

And then try any tool to broken it.

If it’s broken, please send Python version, Pyarmor version, Platform, Obfuscation options, sample script and broken steps to pyarmor@163.com

Do not publish any pyarmor hack link in Pyarmor project

Pyarmor is good at protecting Python scripts, but not good at memory protection and anti-debug. If you care about runtime memory data, or runtime key verification, generally it need extra methods to prevent debugger from hacking dynamic libraries. More information check Protecting Runtime Memory Data

6.3. Segment fault in Apple

First upgrade Pyarmor to 8.3.0+ which has fixed non-system Python crash issues.

If it has been the latest version, then check both of prebuilt extensions pytransform3.so and pyarmor_runtime.so

  • Make sure code sign is OK by codesign -v /path/to/xxx.so

  • Check used shared libraries otool -L /path/to/xxx.so, make sure all of them exist.

For Pyarmor prior to 8.3.0, check the following issues

Generally it’s code sign issue

If segment fault when obfuscating scripts or registering Pyarmor, try to re-sign extension pytransform3.so:

$ codesign -s - -f /path/to/lib/pythonX.Y/site-packages/pyarmor/cli/core/pytransform3.so

If segment fault when launching obfuscated scripts, try to re-sign extension pyarmor_runtime.so:

$ codesign -s - -f dist/pyarmor_runtime_000000/pyarmor_runtime.so

If your app doesn’t have the new signature format, or is missing the DER entitlements in the signature, you’ll need to re-sign the app on a Mac running macOS 11 or later, which includes the DER encoding by default.

If you’re unable to use macOS 11 or later to re-sign your app, you can re-sign it from the command-line in macOS 10.14 and later. To do so, use the following command to re-sign the MyApp.app app bundle with DER entitlements by using a signing identity named “Your Codesign Identity” stored in the keychain:

$ codesign -s "Your Codesign Identity" -f --preserve-metadata --generate-entitlement-der /path/to/MyApp.app

Refer to Apple official documentation Using the latest code signature format

Not system Python

The prebuilt pytrnasform.so and pyarmor_runtime.so need Python shared library, if there is no found Python shared library, it may crash.

Using command line tool otool and install_name_tool to fix Python shared library issue.

To display the names and version numbers of the shared libraries that the object file uses:

$ otool -L /path/to/lib/python3.9/site-packages/pyarmor/cli/core/pytransform3.so

    pytransform3.so (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 1.0.0)
    @rpath/lib/libpython3.9.dylib (compatibility version 3.9.0, current version 3.9.0)

And rpath is configured by:

$ install_name_tool -id pytrnsform3.so \
        -change $deplib @rpath/lib/libpython$ver.dylib \
        -add_rpath @executable_path/.. \
        -add_rpath @loader_path/.. \
        -add_rpath /System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/$ver \
        -add_rpath /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/$ver \

So check there is @rpath/lib/libpython3.9.dylib. If it doesn’t exists, please adapt to current Python by using install_name_tool. Suppose current Python shared library is /usr/local/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/Python:

$ install_name_tool -change @rpath/lib/libpython3.9.dylib /usr/local/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/Python \

How to find current Python shared library, please search network to find answer. Note that some Python may not built with shared library, it can’t work with Pyarmor, please rebuild Python with shared library to fix this kind of issue.

It’s same for dist/pyarmor_runtime_000000/pyarmor_runtime.so.

Refer to Apple official documentation Run-Path Dependent Libraries

If there are many same version Python installed, make sure pytransform3.so or pyarmor_runtime.so links to the right one

For example, there is default Python3.9 in /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/ and anaconda3 Python 3.9 in /Users/my_username/anaconda3/bin/python

When using /Users/my_username/anaconda3/bin/python to run the obfuscated script, it will load dist/pyarmor_runtime_000000/pyarmor_runtime.so, and this library need Python dynamic library. According to RPATH settings, first search /Users/my_username/anaconda3/bin/python/../lib/libpython3.9.dylib, if it exists, everything is fine. If it doesn’t exists, then search /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.9/lib/libpython3.9.dylib, load this unexpected Python dynamic library, and results in crash issue.

In this canse using install_name_tool to modify dist/pyarmor_runtime_000000/pyarmor_runtime.so so that it could load Python dynamic library in anaconda3.

Note that the obfuscated scripts work with system Python by default, and as possible as work with Python installed in the other locations.

Application settings

Pyarmor uses JIT to improve security, In Apple M1, it need extra entitlements. Check Python entitlements:

$ codesign -d --entitlements - $(which python)

Refer to Apple official documentation Allow Execution of JIT-compiled Code Entitlement

Check system segment fault log, and search solution by error message

6.4. Registering

ERROR request license token failed (104)

Please make sure firewall doesn’t block the response of license server. If possible, turn off the firewall to verify it.

In Windows pytransform.pyd will connect to pyarmor.dashingsoft.com port 80 to request token for online obfuscation, in other platforms it is pytransform3.so. Refer to firewall documentation to allow it to connect pyarmor.dashingsoft.com:80.

Group license raises “ERROR request license token failed”

First upgrade Pyarmor to 8.4.0+

Then register group license with debug option -d in offline device. For example:

$ pyarmor -d reg pyarmor-device-regfile-6000.4.zip

Check log, make sure current machine id is inclueded by offline regfile. For example:

DEBUG    group license for machines: ['tokens/mb04eb35da4f5378185c8663522e0a5e3']
DEBUG    got machine id: mb04eb35da4f5378185c8663522e0a5e3

If machine id is mismatched, please generate new device file for this device by Pyarmor 8.4.0+:

$ pyarmor -v

Pyarmor 8.4.0

$ pyarmor reg -g 5

For virtual machine, make sure machine id is same after reboot.

6.5. Packing

In the old pyarmor 7, I’m using “pyarmor pack …”, I could not find any relate information for this in the pyarmor 8.2. How to solve this?

There is no identical pack in Pyarmor 8, Pyarmor 8+ only provide repack function to handle bundle of PyInstaller. Refer to basic tutorial, topic insight into pack and this solved issue Pyarmor pack missing in pyarmor 8.0

6.6. Running Obfuscated Scripts

ImportError: libdl.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

When running obfuscated scripts in unmatched platform, it may raise this error.

In this case checking dependencies by ldd /path/to/pyarmor_runtime.so to make sure it works. If not, please select right –platform to obfuscate the scripts.

For example, when obfuscating the scripts in Linux with target platform Termux, somethimes it need specify –platform linux.aarch64, not –platform android.aarch64, more information refer to issue 1674

6.7. License

Which license is right for my project?

Hints for all licenses:

  • If using Python 2.7 or Python <= 3.6, then only Pyarmor old license works. All the new licenses only work for Python 3.7+

  • Each license only need pay once, but it may not work in Pyarmor future versions

Hints for 3 new licenses (Pyarmor Basic, Pro and Gropu license):

  • If need offline obfuscation, only Pyarmor Group license works

  • Pyarmor Basic and Pro license need internet connection to verify license when obfuscating the scripts, and in 24 hours only 100 different devices are allowed for each license

  • In 24 hours, if need more than 100 docker containers to obfuscate your scripts, only Pyarmor Group license works.

  • Pyarmor Basic, Pro and Group licenses don’t work for Pyarmor 7.

Will Pyarmor Pro license upload my scripts to remote server to verify license?

No. For Pyarmor Basic and Pro License, only Pyarmor License file, serial number of hard disk, Ethernet address, IPv4/IPv6 address, and hostname will be sent to remote server for verification.

I am interested to know if the users are entitled to updates to ensure compatibility with future versions of Python.

No. Pyarmor license works with current Pyarmor version forever, but may not work with future Pyarmor version. I can’t make sure current Pyarmor version could support all the future versions of Python, so the answer is no.

we use Docker to build/obfuscate the code locally then publish the Docker file to the client. After the build stage, the whole environment (and the license) is gone. I wonder how the workflow would be? Can I add the license file to the pipeline and register every time and build?

It’s no problem to run Pyarmor in Docker or CI pipeline to obfuscate application. Each build registering pyarmor with pyarmor-regfile-xxxx.zip which is generated in initial registration. But It’s not allowed to distribute package pyarmor and Pyarmor Basic, Pyarmor Pro, Pyarmor Group License to customer, and don’t run too many build dockers.

We are currently using a trial license for testing, but unfortunately our scripts are big and we are not able to statistically test the operation of Pyarmor. Do you have a commercial trial license for a certain trial period so that we can test the operation of Pyarmor for our scripts?

Sorry, Pyarmor is a small tool and only cost small money, there is no demo license plan.

Most of features could be verified in trial version, other advanced features, for example, mix-str, bcc mode and rft mode, could be configured to ignore one function or one script so that all the others could work with these advanced features.

Is the Internet connection only required to generate the obfuscated script? No internet connection is required on the target device that uses such script?

No internet connection is required on target device.

Pyarmor has no any control or limitation to obfuscated scripts, the behaviors of obfuscated scripts are totally defined by user.

Please check Pyarmor EULA 3.4.1

Our company has a suite of products that we offer together or separately to our clients. Do we need a different license for each of them?

For a suite of products, if each product is different totally, for example, a suite “Microsoft Office” includes “Microsoft Excel”, “Microsoft Word”, each product need one license.

If a suite of products share most of Python scripts, as long as the proportion of the variable part of each product is far less than that of the common part, they’re considered as “one product”.

If each product in a suite of products is functionally complementary, for example, product “Editor” for editing the file, product “Viewer” for view the file, they’re considered as “one product”

Which PyArmor 8.0 license for CI, more than 100 runs / day

At this time, only Group License with self-host runner may work, the default runner which has volatile hardwares may not work. For CI with group license, there are 2 workarouds, please check section using group license in CI pipeline

6.7.1. Upgrading

If we buy version 8 license, is it compatible with earlier versions like 6.7.2?

No. Pyarmor 8 license can’t be used with earlier versions, it may report HTTP 401 error or some unknown errors.

Can we obfuscate our code base with the same level as current? (we are obfuscating our code using super plus mode (”–advanced 5”). Is that available on Pyarmor Basic?

The old license is valid for ever. In this case need not upgrade old license to Pyarmor Basic license, just install Pyarmor 8.x, and using pyarmor-7 with old license.

Check License Types for more information about upgrading

If we upgrade the old license, will the current license expire? (no more available in terms of Pyarmor v7?

If upgrade old license to any Pyarmor 8 license, the current license is no more available in the terms of Pyarmor 7.

How long is the current license valid? Is there a published end-of-support schedule?

The license is valid for ever with Pyarmor version when purchasing this license, but may not work for future Pyarmor, there is no schedule about in which version current license doesn’t work.

Since the first release Pyarmor changed its license 2 times because the core libraries are rewritten:

  • the initial license issued around year 2010 (I forget the exact date)

  • the second license issued on 2019-10-10

  • this is the third license, issued on 2023-03-10

Does the license include access to support and software updates? If so, what is the duration of support and how are updates delivered?

Generally the license could be used in the next versions, until there are big changes in one major version, but I have no plan in details. Just run pip install to upgrade Pyarmor to latest version, the license will keep work.

But there is no more technical supports about how to use Pyarmor, Pyarmor is a command line tool, and all the options are full documentations. Pyarmor users need spend some time to learn Pyarmor by himself.

Is there an option for custom licensing arrangements to accommodate specific project or organizational needs?

At this time, the answer is no.

6.8. Purchasing

How to refund my order?

If this order isn’t activated and in 30 days since purchasing, you can refund the order by one of ways

  1. Email to Ordersupport@mycommerce.com with order information and ask for refund.

  2. Or click FindMyOrder page to submit refund request

6.9. Misc.

What is the ECCN or rating of Pyarmor (EAR99,5D99S,5D002 or other type ECCN)?


Does Pyarmor contain any encryption capabilities?

Pyarmor uses AES/RSA etc., but it hasn’t its own encryption algorithms.

What is the country of origin of this package?


Where is the final built for Pyarmor?

All of Pyarmor packages are published in the PyPI, refer to Pyarmor Package and section Installation in offline device in the chapter Installation

Pyarmor Pro checks the internet, what is the output IP or DNS? I need to release it on my client’s firewall, placing an outbound rule for yours IP.

Now it’s (March 20, 2024)