When Things Go Wrong

Some necessary knowledges and technicals are required to used pyarmor. Check this list, make sure you know them, and your question is not related to them.

Necessary Knowledges


pyarmor is a command line tool, it must be run in the shell or terminal. If you know nothing about shell command, use pyarmor-webui instead.

When command pyarmor complains of argument error, unknown option etc. Please use option -h to list all the available options, and fix command syntax error by these hints. For example:

pyarmor obfuscate -h

Source Code Encoding

If the obfuscated scripts print unexpected output, you need learn this


Then set the right source code encoding in the scripts, first run the plain script to make sure everything is fine, then obfuscate the scripts again.

Python Import System

The obfuscated scripts need an extra Runtime Package to run, it’s a common Python package, which could be imported as normal Python module or package. If it can’t be imported correctly, for example, not distributed with the obfuscated scripts or stored in the wrong place, the obfuscated scripts may raise exceptions like this:

ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'app.pytransform'

This is not PyArmor’s error, just Python can not find it. In this case, you need know Python how to import module, package, what’s absolute import and relative import, you must know what’s sys.path


The obfuscated script is a very simple Python script, the first line is an import statement, the second line is a function call. For any import or no module found error, for example:

ImportError: No module named model.NukepediaDB

Just think it as a common python script, check whether the module, package or extension file locates in the right place according to Python Import System. If not, move the module, package or extension file to right path.

Refer to the following official document or by search engineer to understand Python Import System



If you’d like to pack the obfuscated scripts to one executable, and your project structure is complex, you must know PyInstaller and could pack your project by PyInstaller directly.


Common Solutions

I have receive a lot of issues, most of them aren’t pyarmor’s defect, but use pyarmor in wrong way. So when you’re in trouble with pyarmor, spending a few hours to understand pyarmor may solve the problem quickly. Self-help is better than help from others, it also could save time for both of us.

First make sure you have read the basic guide Using PyArmor.

Look through Understanding Obfuscated Scripts, especially the section The Differences of Obfuscated Scripts

If you don’t know how to use pyarmor in a special case, have a glance at the toc of Advanced Topics.

Here are several common solutions

  • Upgrade pyarmor to latest stable version, please check Change Logs before upgrading. If pyarmor works fine before, but now doesn’t work, also make a Clean uninstallation, re-install pyarmor, and start everything from refresh state.

  • As obfuscating the script by pyarmor, check not only the last error message, but also each log carefully to understand what pyarmor is doing, it’s very helpful to find the problem. And try to get more information by common option -d. For example:

    pyarmor -d obfuscate --recursive foo.py
  • As running the obfuscated scripts, turn on Python debug option by -d to print more information. If there is line number and script name in the traceback, check the source script around this line. Make sure it doesn’t use any feature changed by obfuscated scripts. For example:

    python -d obf_foo.py
  • If you distribute the obfuscated scripts in different platform or docker, make sure the related cross platform options are set. Because the obfuscated scripts include binary library, it’s platform dependent, and Python version in target must be same as the version to obfuscate the scripts.

  • If you are using command pack, make sure PyInstaller could pack the plain scripts directly and the final bundle works.

  • If you are using the scripts obfuscated by Restrict Mode 3 or more, try to use the default restrict mode. If low restrict mode works, check the scripts make sure they don’t violate the restrict mode.

  • If you are using complex scripts or packages, try a simple script or package to check it works or not.

  • Understanding pyarmor by doing a test in a few minutes if something you’re not sure.

The default option of pyarmor works for common cases, but for complex cases, you need understand the different options for each command. First list all available options of obfuscate by option -h:

pyarmor obfuscate -h

You may find the desired option by its short description. If you’re not sure, go to Man Page to read the details of each option.

Maybe the simplest way to understand an option is, do a test in one minute. For example, the option --bootstrap is used to control how to generate the bootstrap code for obfuscated scripts, do tests in a fresh path like this:

cd /path/to/test
mkdir case-1
cd case-1
echo "print('Hello')" > foo.py
pyarmor obfuscate --bootstrap 2 foo.py
ls dist/
cat dist/foo.py

cd /path/to/test
mkdir case-2
cd case-2
echo "print('Hello')" > foo.py
pyarmor obfuscate --bootstrap 3 foo.py
ls dist/
cat dist/foo.py

You can combine different options to do similar tests, it could help you understand pyarmor quickly.


There are a lot of reporeted issues, search here first try to find same issue.

Reporting an issue

When there is no solution in the document, about security issue, send email to pyarmor@163.com, all the others please click issues to report, and provide the necessary information

  1. The full pyarmor command and full output log (required)
  2. If distributing the obfuscated script to other machine, which files are copied (optional)
  3. The command to run the obfuscated scripts and full traceback when something is wrong

The output log could be redirected to a file by this way:

pyarmor obfuscate foo.py >log.txt 2>&1

Here it’s an example, the title of issue:

cannot import name 'pyarmor' from 'pytransform'

The content of issue (copy all of these to github and modify it):

1. On MacOS 10.14 run pyarmor to obfuscate the script
$ pyarmor obfuscate --exact main.py
INFO     Create pyarmor home path: /Users/jondy/.pyarmor
INFO     Create trial license file: /Users/jondy/.pyarmor/license.lic
INFO     Generating public capsule ...
INFO     PyArmor Trial Version 7.0.1
INFO     Python 3.7.10
INFO     Target platforms: Native
INFO     Source path is "/Users/jondy/workspace/pyarmor-webui/test/__runner__/__src__"
INFO     Entry scripts are ['main.py']
INFO     Use cached capsule /Users/jondy/.pyarmor/.pyarmor_capsule.zip
INFO     Search scripts mode: Exact
INFO     Save obfuscated scripts to "dist"
INFO     Read product key from capsule
INFO     Obfuscate module mode is 2
INFO     Obfuscate code mode is 1
INFO     Wrap mode is 1
INFO     Restrict mode is 1
INFO     Advanced value is 0
INFO     Super mode is False
INFO     Super plus mode is not enabled
INFO     Generating runtime files to dist/pytransform
INFO     Extract pytransform.key
INFO     Generate default license file
INFO     Update capsule to add default license file
INFO     Copying /Users/jondy/workspace/pyarmor-webui/venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages/pyarmor/platforms/darwin/x86_64/_pytransform.dylib
INFO     Patch library dist/pytransform/_pytransform.dylib
INFO     Patch library file OK
INFO     Copying /Users/jondy/workspace/pyarmor-webui/venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages/pyarmor/pytransform.py
INFO     Rename it to pytransform/__init__.py
INFO     Generate runtime files OK
INFO     Start obfuscating the scripts...
INFO        /Users/jondy/workspace/pyarmor-webui/test/__runner__/__src__/main.py -> dist/main.py
INFO     Insert bootstrap code to entry script dist/foo.py
INFO     Obfuscate 1 scripts OK.
2. Copy the whole folder `dist/` to target machine Ubuntu
3. Failed to run the obfuscated script by Python 3.7 in Unbutu
$ cd dist/
$ python3 main.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "main.py", line 1, in <module>
  from pytransform import pyarmor
ImportError: cannot import name 'pyarmor' from 'pytransform' (/home/jondy/dist/pytransform/__init__.py)


The issue may be marked as invalid and be closed directly in any of:

  • Not reported as template or missing necessary information
  • There is the exact solution in the documentation

Segment fault

In the following cases, obfuscated scripts may crash

  • Running obfuscated script by debug version Python
  • Obfuscating scripts by Python X.Y but running the obfuscated scripts by different Python version M.N
  • Running the scripts in different platform but obfuscate them without option --platform
    • Docker, it’s Alpine Linux, in PyArmor, the platform name is musl.x86_64, not linux.x86_64
    • In Windows, 32-bit Windows is different from 64-bit Windows
    • In 64-bit Windows, 32-bit Python is different from 64-bit Python
  • Read co_code or other attributes of the obfuscated code object by any way, some third packages may analysis the byte code to do something.
  • Importing the scripts obfuscated by restrict mode 3 and more in non-obfuscated script may crash. It also may crash if it’s obfuscated by obf-code=0
  • Mixing the scripts obfuscated by different option --advanced
  • In MacOS, the core library of pyarmor is linked to standard system Python, for others, use install_name_tool to change rpath to adapt this machine.

For PyArmor 5.5.0 ~ 6.6.0, some machines may be crashed because of advanced mode. A quick workaround is to disable advanced mode by editing the file pytransform.py which locates in the installed path of pyarmor , in the function _load_library, uncomment about line 202. The final code looks like this:

# Disable advanced mode if required
m.set_option(5, c_char_p(1))

Bootstrap Problem

Could not find _pytransform

Generally, the dynamic library _pytransform is in the Runtime Package, before v5.7.0, it’s in the same path of obfuscated scripts. It may be:

  • _pytransform.so in Linux
  • _pytransform.dll in Windows
  • _pytransform.dylib in MacOS

First check whether the file exists. If it exists:

  • Check the permissions of dynamic library

    If there is no execute permissions in Windows, it will complain: [Error 5] Access is denied

  • Check whether ctypes could load _pytransform:

    from pytransform import _load_library
    m = _load_library(path='/path/to/dist')
  • Try to set the runtime path in the Bootstrap Code of entry script:

    from pytransform import pyarmor_runtime

Still doesn’t work, report an issues

ERROR: Unsupport platform linux.xxx

Please refer to Support Platforms

/lib64/libc.so.6: version ‘GLIBC_2.14’ not found

In some machines there is no GLIBC_2.14, it will raise this exception.

One solution is patching _pytransform.so by the following way.

First check version information:

readelf -V /path/to/_pytransform.so

Version needs section '.gnu.version_r' contains 2 entries:
 Addr: 0x00000000000056e8  Offset: 0x0056e8  Link: 4 (.dynstr)
  000000: Version: 1  File: libdl.so.2  Cnt: 1
  0x0010:   Name: GLIBC_2.2.5  Flags: none  Version: 7
  0x0020: Version: 1  File: libc.so.6  Cnt: 6
  0x0030:   Name: GLIBC_2.7  Flags: none  Version: 8
  0x0040:   Name: GLIBC_2.14  Flags: none Version: 6
  0x0050:   Name: GLIBC_2.4  Flags: none  Version: 5
  0x0060:   Name: GLIBC_2.3.4  Flags: none  Version: 4
  0x0070:   Name: GLIBC_2.2.5  Flags: none  Version: 3
  0x0080:   Name: GLIBC_2.3  Flags: none  Version: 2

Then replace the entry of GLIBC_2.14 with GLIBC_2.2.5:

  • Copy 4 bytes at 0x56e8+0x10=0x56f8 to 0x56e8+0x40=0x5728
  • Copy 4 bytes at 0x56e8+0x18=0x5700 to 0x56e8+0x48=0x5730

Here are sample commands:

xxd -s 0x56f8 -l 4 _pytransform.so | sed "s/56f8/5728/" | xxd -r - _pytransform.so
xxd -s 0x5700 -l 4 _pytransform.so | sed "s/5700/5730/" | xxd -r - _pytransform.so


From v5.7.9, this patch is not required. In cross-platform all you need to do is specify the platform to centos6.x86_64 to fix this issue. For example:

pyarmor obfuscate --platform centos6.x86_64 foo.py

‘pyarmor’ is not recognized issue

If pyarmor is installed by pip, please search “pyarmor” in the computer, then run full path pyarmor, or add path of pyarmor to environment variable PATH.

If not by pip, the equivalent of the pyarmor command is running Python script “pyarmor.py” found in the distribution folder.

__snprintf_chk: symbol not found

When run pyarmor in some dockers, it may raise this exception. Because these dockers are built with musl-libc, but the default _pytransform.so is built with glibc, __snprintf_chk is missed in the musl-libc.

In this case, try to download the corresponding dynamic library:

# For x86_64
pyarmor download musl.x86_64.7

# For arm64
pyarmor download musl.aarch64.3

# For armv7l
pyarmor download musl.arm.0

And overwrite the old one which filename could be found in the traceback.

Before pyarmor v6.7.0, download the latest version by this way:

For x86/64 http://pyarmor.dashingsoft.com/downloads/latest/alpine/_pytransform.so

For ARM http://pyarmor.dashingsoft.com/downloads/latest/alpine.arm/_pytransform.so

Apple M1 Hangs Issue

When pyarmor hangs in Apple M1, try these solutions:

  • Remove the whole folder of ~/.pyarmor/platforms, refer to Clean uninstallation
  • Upgrade pyarmor to latest version and use paid version.
  • For trial version, export enviornment variable PYARMOR_PLATFORM=darwin.aarch64.0

Because the default core library of _pytransform.dylib uses some features like JIT-compile which may be blocked by Apple M1.

Signing python interpreter with the corresponding entitlement may fix this problem, but I’m not sure. Refer to https://developer.apple.com/documentation/bundleresources/entitlements/com_apple_security_cs_allow-jit

Obfuscating Scripts Problem

Warning: code object xxxx isn’t wrapped

It means this function isn’t been obfuscated, because it includes some special instructions.

For example, there is 2-bytes instruction JMP 255, after the code object is obfuscated, the operand is increased to 267, and the instructions will be changed to:

JMP 11

In this case, it’s complex to obfuscate the code object with wrap mode. So the code object is obfuscated with non wrap mode, but all the other code objects still are obfuscated with wrap mode.

In current version add some unused code in this function so that the operand isn’t the critical value may avoid this warning.


Before v5.5.0, in this case the code object is left as it is.

Code object could not be obufscated with advanced mode 2

Because this function includes some jump instructions that couldn’t be handled. In this case, just refine this function, make sure the first statement will not generate jump instruction. For example, assignment, function call or any simple statement. However, the compound statements, for examples, try, for, if, with, while etc. will generate the jump instructions. If there is no anyway to refactor the function, insert the following statement at the beginning of this function:

[None, None]

It will generate some instructions but doesn’t change anything.

Error: Try to run unauthorized function

If there is any file license.lic or pytransform.key in the current path, pyarmor maybe reports this error. One solution is to remove all of that files, the other solution to upgrade PyArmor to v5.4.5 later.

‘XXX’ codec can’t decode byte 0xXX

Add the exact source encode at the begin of the script. For example:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

Refer to https://docs.python.org/2.7/tutorial/interpreter.html#source-code-encoding

If the source encode has been added into main script, it still raises this issue. Please check the output log to find the exact script name, it may not the main script.

Why plugin doesn’t work

If the plugin script doesn’t work as expected, first check the plugin script could be injected into the entry script by set Python debug flag:

# In linux
# In Windows

pyarmor obfuscate --exact --plugin check_ntp_time foo.py

It will generate patched file foo.py.pyarmor-patched, make sure the content of plugin script has been inserted into the right place, and the verify function will be executed.

Running Obfuscated Scripts Problem

The license.lic generated doesn’t work

The key is that the capsule used to obfuscate scripts must be same as the capsule used to generate licenses.

The Global Capsule will be changed if the trial license file of PyArmor is replaced with normal one, or it’s deleted occasionally (which will be generated implicitly as running command pyarmor obfuscate next time).

In any cases, generating new license file with the different capsule will not work for the obfuscated scripts before. If the old capsule is gone, one solution is to obfuscate these scripts by the new capsule again.

NameError: name ‘__pyarmor__’ is not defined

No Bootstrap Code are executed before importing obfuscated scripts.

  • When creating new process by Popen or Process in mod subprocess or multiprocessing, to be sure that Bootstrap Code will be called before importing any obfuscated code in sub-process. Otherwise it will raise this exception.
  • If pytransform.py or pytransform/__init__.py raises this exception. Make sure it is not obfuscated, it must be plain script.
  • Also check system module os, ctypes, make sure they’re not obfuscated, try to use option --exclude to exclude the whole Python system library path.

How to check Bootstrap Code executed or not? One simple way is to insert one print statement before them. For example

print('Start to run bootstrap code')
from pytransfrom import pyarmor_runtime

If the message is printed, then it’s OK. Removing the print statement and check other causes.

The other solution for this issue is Using Super Mode to obfuscate the scripts.

Marshal loads failed when running xxx.py

  1. Check whether the version of Python to run obfuscated scripts is same as the version of Python to obfuscate script
  2. Run obfuscated script by python -d to show more error message.
  3. Be sure the capsule used to generated the license file is same as the capsule used to obfuscate the scripts. The filename of the capsule will be shown in the console when the command is running.
  4. For cross platform obfuscation, make sure the dynamic library feature is set correctly, refer to Obfuscating scripts with different features

_pytransform can not be loaded twice

When the function pyarmor_runtime is called twice, it will complaint _pytransform can not be loaded twice

For example, if an obfuscated module includes the following lines:

from pytransform import pyarmor_runtime

When importing this module from entry script, it will report this error. The first 2 lines should be in the entry script only, not in the other module.

This limitation is introduced from v5.1, to disable this check, just edit pytransform.py and comment these lines in function pyarmor_runtime:

if _pytransform is not None:
    raise PytransformError('_pytransform can not be loaded twice')


This limitation has been removed from v5.3.5.

Check restrict mode failed

Use obfuscated scripts in wrong way, by default all the obfuscated scripts can’t be changed any more.

Besides packing the obfuscated scripts will report this error either. Do not pack the obfuscated scripts, but pack the plain scripts directly.

For more information, refer to Restrict Mode

Protection Fault: unexpected xxx

Use obfuscated scripts in wrong way, by default, all the runtime files can’t be changed any more. Do not touch the following files

  • pytransform.py
  • _pytransform.so/.dll/.dylib

If the entry script is obfuscated by new version, but the runtime files are still old, it may raise this exception. Using option --no-cross-protection to disable this protection, or using option --runtime to specify the same runtime files when obfuscating the scrpits, could fix this issue.

For more information, refer to Special Handling of Entry Script

Run obfuscated scripts reports: Invalid input packet

Mixing trial version and purchased version to obfuscate scripts and generate license.lic also may raise this exception. Make sure all the files generated by trial version, for example, obfusbcated script, license file and runtime files, are removed.

Make sure the runtime module or package pytransform imported by the obfuscated scripts is the one distributed with the obfuscated scripts. For example, running the obfuscated scripts python dist/foo.py in the source path of pyarmor package may rasie this exception, because pytransform.py of pyarmor will be imported by the dist/foo.py unexpectedly.

If the scripts are obfuscated in different platform, check the notes in Distributing Obfuscated Scripts To Other Platform

Before v5.7.0, check if there is any of license.lic or pytransform.key in the current path. Make sure they’re generated for the obfuscated scripts. If not, rename them or move them to other path.

Because the obfuscated scripts will first search the current path, then search the path of runtime module pytransform.py to find the file license.lic and pytransform.key. If they’re not generated for the obfuscated script, this error will be reported.

OpenCV fails because of NEON - NOT AVAILABLE

In some Raspberry Pi platform, run the obfuscated scripts to import OpenCV fails:

************************************************** ****************
* This OpenCV build doesn't support current CPU / HW configuration *
* *
* Use OPENCV_DUMP_CONFIG = 1 environment variable for details *
************************************************** ****************

Required baseline features:
terminate called after throwing an instance of 'cv :: Exception'
  what (): OpenCV (3.4.6) /home/pi/opencv-python/opencv/modules/core/src/system.cpp:538: error:
(-215: Assertion failed) Missing support for required CPU baseline features. Check OpenCV build
configuration and required CPU / HW setup. in function 'initialize'

One solution is to specify optioin --platform to linux.armv7.0:

pyarmor obfuscate --platform linux.armv7.0 foo.py
pyarmor build --platform linux.armv7.0
pyarmor runtime --platform linux.armv7.0

The other solution is to set environment variable PYARMOR_PLATFORM to linux.armv7.0. For examples:

PYARMOR_PLATFORM=linux.armv7.0 pyarmor obfuscate foo.py
PYARMOR_PLATFORM=linux.armv7.0 pyarmor build


export PYARMOR_PLATFORM=linux.armv7.0
pyarmor obfuscate foo.py
pyarmor build

How to customize error message

Refer to How to customize error message

undefined symbol: PyUnicodeUCS4_AsUTF8String

If Python interpreter is built with UCS2, it may raises this issue when running super mode obufscated scripts. In this case, try to obfuscate script with platform centos6.x86_64, it’s built with UCS2. For example:

pyarmor obfuscate --advanced 2 --platform centos6.x86_64 foo.py

NameError: name ‘__armor_wrap__’ is not defined

If Restrict Mode is set to 4 or 5, it may report this issue. In this case try to set restrict mode to 2.

If it’s raised in the object method __del__, upgrade pyarmor to v6.7.3+, and obfuscate the scripts again.

Also refer to Using restrict mode with threading and multiprocessing and next question.

Object method __del__ raise NameError exception

If method __del__ raises this exception:

NameError: name '__armor_enter__' is not defined
NameError: name '__armor_wrap__' is not defined

Please upgrade pyarmor to v6.7.3+, and obfuscate the scripts again, and make sure new runtime package is generated.

If the scripts is obfuscated by non super mode and python is 3.7 and later, please obfuscate the scrits by super mode. Or refine the scripts, do not obfuscate the object method __del__. For example

class MyData:


    def lambda_del(self):
       # Real code for method __del__

    __del__ = lambda_del

Any function name which starts with lambda_ will not be obfuscated by pyarmor, in above example, the method lambda_del is not obfuscated, so __del__ is.

The other solution is not obfuscating the script which includes __del__ by copying the plain script to overwrite the obfsucated one. Or obfuscate this script by --obf-code 0.

SystemError: module filename missing

When obfsucating the scripts by super mode, and with outer license, it may complain of this error if the obfuscated scripts could not find the license file license.lic in the current path.

If license.lic is in the other path, set environment variable PYARMOR_LICNSE to it with full path, for example:

export PYARMOR_LICNSE=/path/to/license.lic

Android protection problem

Most of Android system don’t allow load dynamic library in the data path, but there is one _pytransform.so in the runtime package of the obfuscated scripts, so it may raise exception like this:

dlopen failed: couldn't map "/storage/emulated/0/dist/_pytransform.so"
segment 1: Operation not permitted

Please consult Android development document, copy the whole folder pytransform to right location where Android allow to load dynamic library, and set PYTHONPATH or any other way only if Python could find and import it.

libpython3.9.so.1.0: cannot open shared object file

If missing any python core library such as python39.dll, libpython3.9.so, etc, make sure this python interpreter is built with –enable-shared. By default, the runtime extension pytransform is linked to python dynamic library.

In Linux platform, try to install libpython3.9 by apt or any other pacakge manage tool.

Packing Obfuscated Scripts Problem

error: unrecognized arguments

For option -e and -x, it need an extra whitespace in option value, otherwise it will complain of error: unrecognized arguments. For exmaple:

# Wrong, no heading whitespace before --advanced 2
pyarmor pack -x "--advanced 2" ...

# Right
pyarmor pack -x " --advanced 2" ...

If no -e or -x is used, please check the man page of pack to understand all support options.

The final bundle does not work

First of all, please read the man page of pack completely.

Next make sure the scripts could pack by PyInstaller directly and the final bundle works. For example:

pyinstaller foo.py

If the final bundle complains of no module found, it need some extra PyInstaller options, please refer to https://pyinstaller.readthedocs.io

Then make sure the obfuscated scripts could work without packing. For example:

pyarmor obfuscate foo.py
python dist/foo.py

If both of them OK, remove the output path dist and PyInstaller cached path build, then pack the script with --debug:

pyarmor pack --debug foo.py

The build files will be kept, the patched foo-patched.spec could be used by pyinstaller to pack the obfuscated scripts directly, for example:

pyinstaller -y --clean foo-patched.spec

Check this patched .spec and change options in this .spec file, make sure the final bundle could work.

Also refer to Repack PyInstaller bundle with obfuscated scripts, make sure it works by this way.

No module name pytransform

If report this error as running command pyarmor pack:

  • Make sure the script specified in the command line is not obfuscated

  • Run pack with extra option --clean to remove cached myscript.spec:

    pyarmor pack --clean foo.py

NameError: name ‘__pyarmor__’ is not defined

Check the traceback to find which script raises this exception, it’s helpful to find the problem:

  • If pytransform.py or pytransform/__init__.py raises this exception. Make sure it is not obfuscated, it must be plain script.

  • Also check system module os, ctypes, make sure they’re not obfuscated. In this case, try to exclude the Python system library path, for example:

    pyarmor pack -x " --exclude venv" foo.py

    More information refer to pack

  • Try to only copy your own scripts to an empty path, then pack it in this path.

  • If it works in trial version, but fails after pyarmor is registered, try to make a Clean uninstallation

PyArmor Registration Problem

Purchased pyarmor is not private

Even obfuscated with purchased version, license from trial version works:

  • Make sure command pyarmor register shows correct registration information
  • Make a Clean uninstallation, and register again
  • Make sure the current user is same as the one to register pyarmor
  • Make sure environment variable PYARMOR_HOME is not set
  • Try to reboot system.

Could not query registration information

I tried to register in pyarmor with using the command and log:

~ % pyarmor register pyarmor-regfile-1.zip
INFO     PyArmor Version 6.5.2
INFO     Start to register keyfile: pyarmor-regfile-1.zip
INFO     Save registration data to: /Users/Jondy/.pyarmor
INFO     Extracting license.lic
INFO     Extracting .pyarmor_capsule.zip
INFO     This keyfile has been registered successfully.

Watching whether I am registered, I got this output:

~ % pyarmor register
INFO     PyArmor Version 6.5.2
PyArmor Version 6.5.2
Registration Code: pyarmor-vax-000383
Because of internet exception, could not query registration information.

Ping domain api.dashingsoft.com, make sure ip address is resolved like this:

~ % ping api.dashingsoft.com

PING api.dashingsoft.com ( 56 data bytes
Request timeout for icmp_seq 0
Request timeout for icmp_seq 1

If not, add one line in the /etc/hosts: pyarmor.dashingsoft.com

Known Issues

Obfuscate scripts in cross platform

From v5.6.0 to v5.7.0, there is a bug for cross platform. The scripts obfuscated in linux64/windows64/darwin64 don’t work after copied to one of this target platform:

armv5, android.aarch64, ppc64le, ios.arm64, freebsd, alpine, alpine.arm, poky-i586

License Questions

Refer to Q & A

Is there anyway we could get an evaluation license

Q: Is there anyway we could get an evaluation license that lifts the restriction of large file sizes to test it on our systems? Perhaps restricted to 1-2 days with the promise that we will purchase if it fits our needs.

A: There is no evaluation license for pyarmor at this time.

For all of features changed by pyarmor, please check this section https://pyarmor.readthedocs.io/en/latest/understand-obfuscated-scripts.html#the-differences-of-obfuscated-scripts

Generally if your scripts don’t use any mentioned features, and any lower features of Python like visiting frame (sys._getframe), inspecting code object directly, it should work with pyarmor.

One license of pyarmor cost only a small amount of money, even purchasing one for evalution is not too hard to make a decision.

Misc. Questions

How easy is to recover obfuscated code

If someone tries to break the obfuscation, he first must be an expert in the field of reverse engineer, and be an expert of Python, who should understand the structure of code object of python, how python interpreter each instruction. If someone of them start to reverse, he/she must step by step thousands of machine instruction, and research the algorithm by machine codes. So it’s not an easy thing to reverse pyarmor.

How to get receipt or invoice

MyCommerce handles all the sales of pyarmor

Please get help from this page for order/recipt/invoice issue


Or contact “ClientSupport@MyCommerce.com” directly

Would pyarmor be able to provide an evaluation license

Sorry, pyarmor license could be work even offline, so there is no evaluation license.

Generally the obfuscated scripts could replace the original scripts seamlessly. Excpet it uses the features changed by pyarmor, here list all The Differences of Obfuscated Scripts

Most of packages could work with pyarmor, for a few packages, pyarmor also works after patching these packages simplify. Only those packages which visit byte code or something like this could not work with pyarmor at all.