1.3. Basic Tutorial¶
- Debug mode and trace log
- More options to protect script
- More options to protect package
- Copying package data files
- Checking runtime key periodically
- Binding to many machines
- Using outer file to store runtime key
- Localization runtime error
- Packing obfuscated scripts
We’ll assume you have Pyarmor 8.0+ installed already. You can tell Pyarmor is installed and which version by running the following command in a shell prompt (indicated by the $ prefix):
$ pyarmor --version
If Pyarmor is installed, you should see the version of your installation. If it isn’t, you’ll get an error.
This tutorial is written for Pyarmor 8.0+, which supports Python 3.7 and later. If the Pyarmor version doesn’t match, you can refer to the tutorial for your version of Pyarmor by using the version switcher at the bottom right corner of this page, or update Pyarmor to the newest version.
Throughout this tutorial, assume run pyarmor in project path which includes:
project/ ├── foo.py ├── queens.py └── joker/ ├── __init__.py ├── queens.py └── config.json
Pyarmor uses pyarmor gen with rich options to obfuscate scripts to meet the needs of different applications.
Here only introduces common options in a short, using any combination of them as needed. About usage of each option in details please refer to pyarmor gen
When something is wrong, check console log to find what Pyarmor does, and use
-d to enable debug mode to print more information:
$ pyarmor -d gen foo.py
Trace log is useful to check whatever protected by Pyarmor, enable it by this command:
$ pyarmor cfg enable_trace=1
After that, pyarmor gen will generate a logfile
.pyarmor/pyarmor.trace.log. For example:
$ pyarmor gen foo.py $ cat .pyarmor/pyarmor.trace.log trace.co foo:1:<module> trace.co foo:5:hello trace.co foo:9:sum2 trace.co foo:12:main
Each line starts with
trace.co is reported by code object protector. The first log says
foo.py module level code is obfuscated, second says function
hello at line 5 is obfuscated, and so on.
Enable both debug and trace mode could show much more information:
$ pyarmor -d gen foo.py
Disable trace log by this command:
$ pyarmor cfg enable_trace=0
For scripts, use these options to get more security:
$ pyarmor gen --enable-jit --mix-str --assert-call --private foo.py
--enable-jit tells Pyarmor processes some sensitive data by
c function generated in runtime.
--assert-call makes sure function is obfuscated, to prevent called function from being replaced by special ways
--private makes the script could not be imported by plain scripts
data = "abcefgxyz" def fib(n): a, b = 0, 1 while a < n: print(a, end=' ') a, b = b, a+b if __name__ == '__main__': fib(n)
abcefgxyz and function
fib will be protected like this
data = __mix_str__(b"******") def fib(n): a, b = 0, 1 while a < n: print(a, end=' ') a, b = b, a+b if __name__ == '__main__': __assert_call__(fib)(n)
fib is obfuscated,
__assert_call__(fib) returns original function
fib. Otherwise it will raise protection exception.
To check which function or which string are protected, enable trace log and check trace logfile:
$ pyarmor cfg enable_trace=1 $ pyarmor gen --mix-str --assert-call fib.py $ cat .pyarmor/pyarmor.trace.log trace.assert.call fib:10:'fib' trace.mix.str fib:1:'abcxyz' trace.mix.str fib:9:'__main__' trace.co fib:1:<module> trace.co fib:3:fib
For package, remove
--private and append 2 extra options:
$ pyarmor gen --enable-jit --mix-str --assert-call --assert-import --restrict joker/
--assert-import prevents obfuscated modules from being replaced with plain script. It checks each import statement to make sure the modules are obfuscated.
--restrict makes sure the obfuscated module is only available inside package. It couldn’t be imported from any plain script, also not be run by Python interpreter.
__init__.py is not restricted, all the other modules are invisible from outside. Let’s check this, first create a script
import joker print('import joker OK') from joker import queens print('import joker.queens OK')
Then run it:
$ cd dist $ python a.py ... import joker OK ... RuntimeError: unauthorized use of script
In order to export
joker.queens, either removing option
--restrict, or config only this module is not restrict like this:
$ pyarmor cfg -p joker.queens restrict_module=0
Then obfuscate this package with restrict mode:
$ pyarmor gen --restrict joker/
Now do above test again, it should work:
$ cd dist/ $ python a.py ... import joker OK ... import joker.queens
Many packages have data files, but they’re not copied to output path.
There are 2 ways to solve this problem:
Before generating the obfuscated scripts, copy the whole package to output path, then run pyarmor gen to overwrite all the
$ mkdir dist/joker $ cp -a joker/* dist/joker $ pyarmor gen -O dist -r joker/
Changing default configuration let Pyarmor copy data files:
$ pyarmor cfg data_files=* $ pyarmor gen -O dist -r joker/
Checking runtime key every hour:
$ pyarmor gen --period 1 foo.py
-b many times to bind obfuscated scripts to many machines.
For example, machine A and B, the ethernet addresses are
f8:ff:c2:27:00:7f respectively. The obfuscated script could run in both of machine A and B by this command
$ pyarmor gen -b "66:77:88:9a:cc:fa" -b "f8:ff:c2:27:00:7f" foo.py
First obfuscating script with
$ pyarmor gen --outer foo.py
In this case, it could not be run at this time:
$ python dist/foo.py
Let generate an outer runtime key valid for 3 days by this command:
$ pyarmor gen key -e 3
It generates a file
dist/pyarmor.rkey, copy it to runtime package:
$ cp dist/pyarmor.rkey dist/pyarmor_runtime_000000/
$ python dist/foo.py
Let’s generate another license valid for 10 days:
$ pyarmor gen key -O dist/key2 -e 10 $ ls dist/key2/pyarmor.rkey
Copy it to runtime package to replace the original one:
$ cp dist/key2/pyarmor.rkey dist/pyarmor_runtime_000000/
The outer runtime key file also could be saved to other paths, refer to outer key.
Some of runtime error messages could be customized. When something is wrong with the obfuscated scripts, it prints your own messages.
messages.cfg in the path
$ mkdir .pyarmor $ vi .pyarmor/message.cfg
Then edit it. It’s a
.ini format file, change the error messages as needed
[runtime.message] error_1 = this license key is expired error_2 = this license key is not for this machine error_3 = missing license key to run the script error_4 = unauthorized use of script
Now obfuscate the script in the current path to use customized messages:
$ pyarmor gen foo.py
If we want to show same message for all of license errors, edit it like this
[runtime.message] error_1 = invalid license key error_2 = invalid license key error_3 = invalid license key
error_4, it means this error uses the default message.
And then obfuscate the scripts again.
Pyarmor need PyInstaller to pack scripts first, then replace plain scripts with obfuscated ones in bundle.
First packing script to one file by PyInstaller with option
$ pyinstaller -F foo.py
It generates one bundle file
dist/foo, pass this to pyarmor:
$ pyarmor gen -O obfdist --pack dist/foo foo.py
This command will obfuscate
foo.py first, then repack
dist/foo, replace the original
obfdist/foo.py, and append all the runtime files to bundle.
The final output is still
First packing script to one folder by PyInstaller:
$ pyinstaller foo.py
It generates one bundle folder
dist/foo, and an executable file
dist/foo/foo, pass this executable to pyarmor:
$ pyarmor gen -O obfdist --pack dist/foo/foo foo.py
Like above section,
dist/foo/foo will be repacked with obfuscated scripts.
Now run it:
More information about pack feature, refer to Insight Into Pack Command