Understanding Obfuscated Scripts

Global Capsule

The .pyarmor_capsule.zip in the HOME path called Global Capsule. PyArmor will read data from Global Capsule when obfuscating scripts or generating licenses for obfuscated scripts.

All the trial version of PyArmor shares one same .pyarmor_capsule.zip, which is created implicitly when executing command pyarmor obfuscate. It uses 1024 bits RSA keys, called public capsule.

For purchased version, each user will receive one exclusive private capsule, which use 2048 bits RSA key.

The capsule can’t help restoring the obfuscated scripts at all. If your private capsuel got by someone else, the risk is that he/she may generate new license for your obfuscated scripts.

Generally this capsule is only in the build machine, it’s not used by the obfuscated scripts, and should not be distributed to the end users.

Obfuscated Scripts

After the scripts are obfuscated by PyArmor, in the dist folder you find all the required files to run obfuscated scripts:



Before v6.3, there are 2 extra files:


The obfuscated scripts are normal Python scripts. The module dist/mymodule.py would be like this:

__pyarmor__(__name__, __file__, b'\x06\x0f...', 1)

The entry script dist/myscript.py would be like this:

from pytransform import pyarmor_runtime
__pyarmor__(__name__, __file__, b'\x0a\x02...', 1)

Super Obfuscated Scripts

If the scripts are obfuscated by Super Mode, it’s totaly different. There is only one runtime file, that is extension module pytransform. Only these files in the dist:


pytransform.so or pytransform.dll

All the obfuscated scripts would be like this:

from pytransform import pyarmor
pyarmor(__name__, __file__, b'\x0a\x02...', 1)

Or there is a suffix in extension name, for example:

from pytransform_vax_000001 import pyarmor
pyarmor(__name__, __file__, b'\x0a\x02...', 1)


The bootstrap code is gone in the super mode which may make some users confused. And both runtime package and runtime files now refer to the extension module pytransform.

Entry Script

In PyArmor, entry script is the first obfuscated script to be run or to be imported in a python interpreter process. For example, __init__.py is entry script if only one single python package is obfuscated.

Bootstrap Code

The first 2 lines in the entry script called Bootstrap Code. It’s only in the entry script:

from pytransform import pyarmor_runtime

For the obfuscated package which entry script is __init__.py. The bootstrap code may make a relateive import by leading “.”:

from .pytransform import pyarmor_runtime

And there is another form if the runtime path is specified as obfuscating scripts:

from pytransform import pyarmor_runtime

Since v5.8.7, the runtime package may has a suffix. For example:

from pytransform_vax_000001 import pyarmor_runtime

Runtime Package

The package pytransform which is in the same folder with obfuscated scripts called Runtime Packge. It’s required to run the obfuscated script, and it’s the only dependency of obfuscated scripts.

Generally this package is in the same folder with obfuscated scripts, but it can be moved anywhere. Only this package in any Python Path, the obfuscated scripts can be run as normal scripts. And all the scripts obfuscated by the same Global Capsule could share this package.

There are 2 files in this package:

    __init__.py                  A normal python module
    _pytransform.so/.dll/.lib    A dynamic library implements core functions

Before v6.3.0, there are 2 extra files:

pytransform.key              Data file
license.lic                  The license file for obfuscated scripts

Before v5.7.0, the runtime package has another form Runtime Files

Runtime Files

They’re not in one package, but as 2 separated files:

pytransform.py               A normal python module
_pytransform.so/.dll/.lib    A dynamic library implements core functions

Before v6.3.0, there are 2 extra files:

pytransform.key              Data file
license.lic                  The license file for obfuscated scripts

Obviously Runtime Package is more clear than Runtime Files.

Since v5.8.7, the runtime package (module) may has a suffix, for example:



The License File for Obfuscated Script

There is a special runtime file license.lic, it’s required to run the obfuscated scripts. Since v6.3.0, it may be embedded into the dynamic library.

When executing pyarmor obfuscate, a default one will be generated, which allows obfuscated scripts run in any machine and never expired.

In order to bind obfuscated scripts to fix machine, or expire the obfuscated scripts, use command pyarmor licenses to generate a new license.lic and overwrite the default one.


In PyArmor, there is another license.lic, which locates in the source path of PyArmor. It’s required to run pyarmor, and issued by me, :)

Key Points to Use Obfuscated Scripts

  • The obfuscated scripts are normal python scripts, so they can be seamless to replace original scripts.

  • There is only one thing changed, the bootstrap code must be executed before running or importing any obfuscated scripts.

  • The runtime package must be in any Python Path, so that the bootstrap code can run correctly.

  • The bootstrap code will load dynamic library _pytransform.so/.dll/.dylib by ctypes. This file is dependent-platform, all the prebuilt dynamic libraries list here Support Platfroms

  • By default the bootstrap code searchs dynamic library _pytransform in the runtime package. Check pytransform._load_library to find the details.

  • If the dynamic library _pytransform isn’t within the runtime package, change the bootstrap code:

    from pytransform import pyarmor_runtime
  • When starts a fresh python interpreter process by multiprocssing.Process, os.exec, subprocess.Popen etc., make sure the bootstrap code are called in new process before running any obfuscated script.

More information, refer to How to Obfuscate Python Scripts and How to Run Obfuscated Script

The Differences of Obfuscated Scripts

There are something changed after Python scripts are obfuscated:

  • The major/minor version of Python in build machine should be same as in target machine. Because the scripts will be compiled to byte-code before they’re obfuscated, so the obfuscated scripts can’t be run by all the Python versions as the original scripts could. Especially for Python 3.6, it introduces word size instructions, and it’s totally different from Python 3.5 and before. It’s recommeded to run the obfuscated scripts with same major and minor version of Python.

  • If Python interpreter is compiled with Py_TRACE_REFS or Py_DEBUG, it will crash to run obfuscated scripts.

  • The callback function set by sys.settrace, sys.setprofile, threading.settrace and threading.setprofile will be ignored by obfuscated scripts.

  • Some function in the module inspect may not work, and any other module or package may not work if it visits the source or byte code of the obfuscated scripts.

  • It will crash to visit the attribute co_const of code object directly if the script is obfuscated in advanced mode.

  • If the exception is raised, the line number in the traceback may be different from the original script, especially this script has been patched by plugin script or cross protection code.

  • The attribute __file__ of code object in the obfuscated scripts will be <frozen name> other than real filename. So in the traceback, the filename is shown as <frozen name>.

    Note that __file__ of moudle is still filename. For example, obfuscate the script foo.py and run it:

    def hello(msg):
    # The output will be 'foo.py'
    # The output will be '<frozen foo>'
  • In super mode, builtin functions dirs(), vars() don’t work if no argument, call it by this way:

    dirs() => sorted(locals().keys())
    vars() => locals()

    Note that dirs(x), vars(x) still work if x is not None.

About Third-Party Interpreter

About third-party interperter, for example Jython, and any embeded Python C/C++ code, they should satisfy the following conditions at least to run the obfuscated scripts:

  • They must be load offical Python dynamic library, which should be built from the soure https://github.com/python/cpython , and the core source code should not be modified.
  • On Linux, RTLD_GLOBAL must be set as loading libpythonXY.so by dlopen, otherwise obfuscated scripts couldn’t work.


Boost::python does not load libpythonXY.so with RTLD_GLOBAL by default, so it will raise error “No PyCode_Type found” as running obfuscated scripts. To solve this problem, try to call the method sys.setdlopenflags(os.RTLD_GLOBAL) as initializing.

  • The module ctypes must be exists and ctypes.pythonapi._handle must be set as the real handle of Python dynamic library, PyArmor will query some Python C APIs by this handle.